Mind over Manufacturing: what do to when the system defeats you.

I have many hobbies, one of which is sewing, and lately I’ve become enamored with Japanese folk textiles. Specifically boro. (Special thanks to Sri Threads for many of the pictures.)

I like boro textiles because they are burdened with more than the “waste not, want not”, Great Depression-style resourcefulness I grew up with. The Japanese (from my limited understanding) have a more nuanced relationship with waste, repair, and beauty. That Wikipedia link above includes tangential concepts that are beautifully exemplified by boro textiles. For instance: kintsugi or the practice of repairing broken pottery with gold which has come to symbolize that history is what makes a piece beautiful. Or the exclamation “mottainai” which means “what a waste!” and comes from a Shinto belief that objects have souls. (Remember how Marie Kondo thanks her shoes for doing a good day’s work and some how–even though she knows it’s silly–it makes her feel better about herself and her possessions?) Westerners–especially this new generation of self-sufficient, economically/ecologically conscious ones– we may hate waste, but do we lament waste as a minor death?

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Take a look at these boro textiles again and their sashiko stitching which both strengthens the delicate hemp cloth and beautifies it (we might call it wabi-sabi, perhaps). Did you know that sometimes, the Japanese would recycle thread from old clothes to do this? Imagine painstakingly pulling out each stitch so you could reuse the thread instead of simply cutting the seam apart.


So, as an artist, I got all fired up about the sustainability of hand stitching when my heater broke. True, it was an old heater, but if it was old, it should be simpler to fix, no? Just a matter of finding an expert. But I couldn’t fix it. No one made the parts for it, and I couldn’t get to the broken bit anyway. I was left with a blanket around my shoulders helpless to save the world from our booming landfills.

 

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An early 19th c. American quilt made out of feed sacks. A western frugality. Courtesy of QuiltHistory.com

Then, I went on the internet and happened to discover planned obsolescenceor the strategy of shortening a products usable life by design. Sometimes this means aesthetically (clothes and cars do this since their materials often are more durable than fashion houses and auto brands would prefer. Although, don’t get me started on fast fashion: so shoddy that even Africa is starting to reject our secondhand clothes.) Sometimes planned obsolescence means simply designing things that can’t be repaired. Like clothes dryer drums molded to the machine so you can’t replace the part that breaks; watches and phones that are one piece so you can’t get inside to replace a battery without destroying them; or printer ink cartridges that lie about how much ink is left.

 

 

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Credit: Ray Van Eng Photography | Getty Images

As an Emergency Manager and socially-conscious person, I’m trained to promote self-sufficiency and sustainability. We commonly think that it’s a matter of laziness; that if we can get people to care enough, they would make an emergency kit, build up a pantry, and stop living so wastefully. But I do care. I love boro cloth and I still can’t stop living wastefully. 

 

Kate Fletcher wrote a paper about emotional durability. In it, she critiques our focus on durability as a product of good design, material, and construction processes and suggests that psychological factors also make a thing durable.

The logic goes like this:

  • Some scientists have claimed that you can get people to hang on to goods longer if you cause them to form an emotional attachment to the object.
  • That’s true, but usually people who form attachments to objects collect them and store them instead of using them.
  • Fletcher did some ethnography and claims:  “… while mending and altering were common, the physical durability of the garment per se appears less critical to the piece’s durability than a user’s habit of mind fostering long-term use” (p.231)

In other words, durability has more to do with how you treat an object than how long its materials last. Here’s an example Fletcher gives in page 232. I do recommend clicking through so you can see the picture:

A Life of Action “I call this my three stage jacket. It began about forty years ago as a very slim waistcoat that was given to me. I knitted a panel and put it into the back just to be able to fasten it together at the front, you see. And then about fifteen years ago I added sleeves and a collar and some trimmings. And then, only about five years ago, I became a bit too big to button it up so I added latchets across to the front so that I can fasten it.” (Figure 1)

She goes on to recommend (with others) that the fashion industry–and I would add, society at large–change from “ownership” to “usership”. Fletcher urges the fashion industry to design garments that require collaboration with the wearer; that can be used for more than one occasion or fashion period; that can be altered and passed down. I think that that applies to all objects. Before you bring an object in to your house, think about whether or not you would enjoy using it as opposed to whether or not you would enjoy having it. Changing your identity from an owner to a user opens up many possibilities for adaptation in the future.

Of course, it’s also your responsibility to develop (or find someone who has developed) the technical skills to make those adaptions such as knitting, gluing, composting, and hammering. It also means you are responsible for properly cleaning, maintaining, and storing your objects. This summer I was the recipient of a 50 year old cast iron pressure canner in near-mint condition because the original owner was meticulous about cleaning it. I mean: marine-level clean. It’s perfect. And now it’s my turn to keep it that way.

But it’s all worth it. Just ask any crafter how much fun it is to reuse a thing you thought was dead.

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Credit: clothing designers CoolHunting

Further Reading: Cascadia Rising in the News

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This is part of a series about the largest disaster exercise conducted in Washington State history called Cascadia Rising, 2016. See the other blogs here.

Here’s some articles I found with another perspective on Cascadia Rising.

  • FEMA Headquarters did a fun live-blog for the duration. They asked bloggers from different areas of the response to post photos and write a few sentences. (Yours truly was featured a couple of times, too.)
  • A very thorough account of how an earthquake/tsunami would affect the Puget Sound area as well as details about the players in Tacoma. Check out the beautiful map.
  • A story done about the Navy and National Guard practicing in the field with real paratroop drops, docking vessels, and helicopter fly-overs. I was told that both the military and national guard were doing their own training concurrently with Cascadia Rising, but I was unable to ask more about it. Glad to have seen this story to get another perspective!
  • Really  nice overview of the exercise with quotes from around the state and beautiful pictures from the Seattle Times.
  • More details about National Guard maneuvers on Vashon Island and an interesting tidbit on how the local radio station also played along with the Exercise.
  • The Navy and Coastguard practice building docks to deliver supplies at Port Townsend, Port Angeles and others. During this kind of event, one of the best ways to deliver help will be via water. The military has both super cool tech and super cool expertise.
  • Behind the scenes look at a county Emergency Operations Center. Another facet I was unable to see first hand. Interesting!
  • The National Guard build tent city in Mason County. Governor Inslee visits.
  • Describing Idaho’s involvement.

Cascadia in the News

Preliminarry Lessons Learned and After Action Reports

General Info about Earthquakes and Tsunamis in this area

Preparedness Links:

When Coms are Down (who you gonna call?)

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EMScholar exercises 

This is part of a series about the largest disaster exercise conducted in Washington State history called Cascadia Rising, 2016. See the other blogs here.

As a Communication’s major, I was never really that interested in communication technologies (except for Twitter. Those case studies are super cool). Then, one day, I married an IT guy. Over the years, I’ve picked up enough geek-speak that when I passed by some funky looking antenna, I was a) curious and b) able to appear somewhat competent to the person explaining them to me. Here’s what I learned (stay with me, it’s super interesting):


During the first day of the Cascadia Rising Exercise, 2016, the Washington State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC) pretended that it had lost phones and internet. The SEOC floor was quiet and sluggish. People prepped paperwork, anticipating the flood of need when the phone lines came up. A few people were using cell phones and satellite phones to get information about the disaster from the counties (called “situational awareness” or sometimes “ground truth”).

Across the hall, the ham radio operators were hunched in close to their speakers trying to distinguish fuzzy connections. These volunteers are part of RACES (rhymes with trees), Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service which activates to help in an emergency. The “amateur” in their name is a reference to the FCC’s designation of the band of radio waves they use; NOT a reference to their skill level. These guys are pros.

If being without phones and internet is distressful normally, imagine being responsible for disaster response without any way to easily connect to your field teams. That’s why getting coms up is first priority for disaster managers. The military (and some civilian companies) have developed ultra-light gear that can be set up for immediate connection.

The Beachball or the “Gatr”

FEMA has brought an inflatable satellite in the shape of a 6 ft white ball. The “dish” itself is merely a reflective fabric on the inside of the ball while the skinny LNB arm juts out of the ball a few inches. The pressure of the air and the round shape of the ball keeps the dish in the correct parabolic shape while also keeping it at the right focusing distance (according to the manufacturer’s website). The whole thing fits in two to four storage-bin sized chests and can be working in about 6 hours. Most of that time is spent trying to manually find the satellite connection. The ball has to be tethered down in  8 spots to keep it from rocking or shifting in the wind. The manufacturer claims that the round shape actually makes it more stable in the wind. Still, one FEMA tech guy admits he far prefers the MERS or Mobile Emergency Response System because the satellites lock automatically. It was probably better before they switched satellite providers, he tells me. Even so, the beach ball can provide cheap high-bandwith to a mobile team fairly quickly and with very light equipment. Ideal for first responders. Theoretically, you could air drop it into impassable areas.

Fun fact: Gatr is the name of the company that sells them.

The Portable KU-band Satellite Dish: A bit larger and set up nearby is a portable ground-mounted satellite dish. It takes a bit longer to set up and fits in twice as many cases. But seems to serve a few more people.

MERS: Mobile Emergency Response System. An office on wheels

The MERS that the FEMA tech prefers is a small camper with a satellite dish on top. Inside is all the telecommunications equipment you might want: VOIP (internet phones), wifi, radios, and video/audio equipment. A tiny conference table in the middle seats 4 with more work spaces along the counter. The truck can provide 40 people in a building nearby with phone or internet or provide 10 people working in the truck with phones AND internet. The truck can be loaded onto a Boeing-137 or C-5 plane for transport into disaster areas. While it is more stable and a little more powerful, it also requires cleared roads. The military has a similar vehicle (see second left).

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The MERS trucks can drive right onto a C-5 like this one and be dropped off near disaster areas. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Charlie Miller)

 

Cell Trucks

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A Sprint truck deploys in the Cascadia Rising Exercise. Many cell service providers routinely practice with disaster personnel.

Of the same size as the MERS are a variety of “cell on light trucks”. All the cell providers have mobile teams who deploy to disaster zones with these trucks in order to re-establish cell service while their permanent cell towers are being fixed. The truck deploys a 70 ft antenna and a satellite dish supported by a generator that can run for 1-2 weeks depending on how hot it is. The equipment inside the truck needs to be kept cool, so much of the generator fuel is used for that. The truck can support about 600 simultaneous users which is about the capability of a regular cell tower. Also, many of the the cell providers–according to Sprint–bring phones to the disaster area. They can pre-load contacts and provide them to field agents who can then use them to edit and share maps, communicate with search and rescue personnel, send and receive email, etc.

The best of the best is spelled JISCC. The Joint Incident Site Communications Capability.

The JISCC (rhymes with wisk) is run by the National Guard and represents the pinnacle of ability. It was the spidery JISCC antenna that I had spotted deployed on a strip of land and which piqued my curiosity. I felt especially honored and grateful to be given a guided tour of the whole operation (special thanks to a major who wishes to remain anonymous who gave me over an hour of his time). Unfortunately, I was only able to get photos of the outside of the JISCC. I will do my best to describe the inside.

The JISCC does everything. Twice. First, I was shown a tiny closet where a young airman hunched over a box with 6 inch screen in the lid and buttons and wires all inside it. That grainy picture, I was told, was the feed from the helicopter flying over the (pretend) disaster area. The National Guard command was working with the state to get visuals of different areas to guide search and rescue or assess damage. The JISCC was helping to collect that video. The helicopter camera was equipped with infrared so that we could use it at night.

Next, I was shown the main room where about 6 Guardsman (not including the lonely airman in the closet) worked on folding tables next to racks of equipment in a very cool room. In one corner was a chest high cabinet of radios. All kinds of radios: HF, VHF, UHF. The radios have cross-band repeaters for better range. Two guardsmen fiddled with dials trying to clear up the signal from the Puget Sound area. The radios can also talk to cell phones. Handy, I think. You can even send email over the radio, he tells me. I look dubiously at him. It sounds like a fax, he says, and on the other end, you have a computer which translates it into words again for you. This is one kind of interoperability that the National Guard strives for: communication between different kinds of technology.

On the wall to the left was a bank of routers for phones and computers. The JISCC brings light laptops and other equipment so you could conceivably talk to anyone on anything.

Outside, it’s 90 degrees; uncomfortably hot for us northwesterners. That’s one of the benefits of working in the JISCC, my guide says, laughing. The equipment has to stay cool, so you stay cool too. We walk over to a cordoned off area and he points out the antenna one by one.

 

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Front: the antenna receives helicopter feed for the National Guard. Back right: the pole supports thin wires which collect HF radio waves.

The stico (named after it’s manufacturer) is an interoperable RF antenna. There’s also a VHF/UHF antenna, and a satellite dish which automatically finds the satellite. It’s point and shoot, he says. Just set it and go. The especially tall one with the funny spikes is the antenna receiving the helicopter feed. Next to it is a pole with wires attached to a tree and the ground. The wires are the antenna, he tells me, not the pole like you might think. It receives HF radio and this design makes it extremely light and packable.

A few steps away is the trailer and truck that all this goes on. It’s surprisingly small. In the field, the trailer can be set up with all the radio and router equipment from inside and air conditioned to keep it cool. I see a few fold-up chairs left in the truck. The whole thing can be loaded onto a C-130 and only needs a 6 person team. They’re currently thinking about ways the equipment can be air-dropped to affected areas. The only trouble is: if they drop it and wheels can’t get to it, then you’re stuck. And if wheels could get to it, why would you need to drop it?

My guide recalled how the National Guard JISCC team was called up last summer during the fires. The fireman had brought their own equipment to their base camp (an actual campground) but discovered that they were stuck in a valley. Their line-of -site satellite phones and radios didn’t work. They needed the National Guard’s communications support. They also found that having email and a fax machine on base was extremely helpful for organizing firefighter schedules and payment. 

“What’s the one thing you wish you could tell people.” I asked him. He paused squinting into the bright, unblemished sky. “We provide communication capability to people who are coming to help you,” he replied. 

As I walked back toward the cool, dark of the SEOC, I couldn’t help but be very grateful to the engineers, IT guys, and other geeky types who designed, ran, and maintained this equipment. From the individual volunteer HAM operators, to the portable satellites, the heavier MERS teams, and private cell trucks, to the wonderfully robust National Guard JISCC: all are important pieces to the response network. We couldn’t do it without them.

A (Theoretical) Day in the Life of the EOC

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This is a fictionalized account of a day in the State Emergency Operation’s Center during a pretend earthquake/tsunami disaster. This account is not real and should not be panicked about. For background information, please do see our previous blogs about the Cascadia Rising Exercise, 2016.

While I was participating in the exercise, I found it difficult to describe the work happening around me to friends. There are so many little pieces to keep track of and so many vague abbreviations and tasks to do. I thought a fictionalized “day in the life” might be both helpful and fun. This is a pretend day two when the responders have a good sense of the tasks before them, but still have a lot to do. Federal agents are on the scene and communications have been re-established so work is in full swing. I chose this day so that you can see the very wide variety and scope of problems that the State EOC had to deal with and the many different people helping. The meeting schedule is taken from several real meeting schedules that Cascadia Rising used though some things were edited for clarity and for drama. 


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The State EOC floor (SEOC)

7:30 am: Shift Change Briefing. All state Emergency Operations Center (EOC) staff attend a meeting for getting updated on the disaster. Editor’s Note: For the Cascadia Rising Exercise, the night shift was “notional” which means it only existed on paper. Controllers delivered “injects” or pre-conceived, pretend-facts that the players have to respond to. 

Last night, there was an aftershock and several gas lines lit fires. Pierce county needs fire trucks and state EOC employees are working to see who can supply them. Maybe the Department of Natural Resources? How about the National Guard?

 

 

8:30 am: Unified Coordination Group (UCG) Objectives Meeting. “Review and identify incident objectives for the next operational period.” Planning staff from all levels and branches of the government meet to discuss tomorrows priorities while operations staff work on today’s priorities.

Today we’re working on search and rescue, fire suppression establishing shelters, and assessing the damage to “critical infrastructure” like hospitals and police stations. Tomorrow, we should work on road clearing, getting fuel to vehicles in the field, getting the power grid back up, and sending food and water to shelters. 

8:30 am: Command and General Staff Meeting:

The operations staff meet to discuss today’s priorities called “objectives”. (They were approved last night by the planning staff). The EOC supervisor briefs his Operations Chiefs and the Disaster Manager who will later need to liaise with the planning staff and politicians. Today, we’re working on search and rescue, mass care (medical care, housing, etc), damage assessment, fire suppression, road clearing, fuel line and power grid repairs, and body collection and identification. The operation’s staff are tracking more than 100 requests for help from the counties and tribes.

FEMA arrives.

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FEMA arrives with their own communications equipment.

9:00 am: State Emergency Management Declaration Meeting

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Disaster Manager and Deputy

The Disaster Manager and other officials meet to decide whether this emergency is bad enough to warrant an official Disaster Declaration request by the governor. It is. In fact, the President has anticipated this and is standing by to grant the request immediately. 

The EOC is relieved to hear that they have received a Presidential Disaster Declaration. Now they can easily receive Federal aid.

9:15 am: The Media Arrive: They want to know about the disaster declaration and the status of the response. They work closely with the SEOC to get important life-saving messages out to the people. Fun Fact: The media really did come into the SEOC during Cascadia Rising. The Governor did a pretend news briefing, and then the cameras came into the SEOC to interview the FEMA Region 10 Director and the Lead Controller about the exercise itself.

 

9:30 am: Fuel Task Force Meeting: How many lines are broken? How can we fix them?Who needs the fuel? How can we get them fuel for emergency use?

9:30 am: FEMA National Call: FEMA field agents meet with their national headquarters, military officials, and state officials via teleconferencing equipment. They compare notes and discuss resource requests. For instance, can the military let us use some helicopters for search and rescue operations, and some planes for fire suppression?

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FEMA coordinates with the military and Federal government to provide support to the state.

9:30 am: ESF 15 Local/State Coordination Call

Public Information Officers from FEMA, the state, the tribes, and counties, meet to discuss what to tell the public. 

People are beginning to ask what to do with the bodies they’ve discovered. 
What can we tell people about when power will be back up? 

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The State EOC floor listens to the local jurisdictions on speaker.

10:00 am: Tribal and Local Jurisdiction Conference Call

The conference call is piped in over the speakers onto the EOC floor. The EOC floor supervisor takes role call. Most of the counties have joined the call. One by one, they describe their needs and their own response activities. The King County emergency operation’s center had to move to their secondary site due to damage to their building. They give the group their new address and phone number. Klallam tribe has opened their casino and hotels as a shelter. Thurston county is stranded. Both Hwy 101 and the Nisqually bridge are damaged. The State asks the Army Corps of Engineers to see if they can fix the bridge and/or clear Hwy 101.

10:00 am: Critical Infrastructure Task Force

The task force members meet to update the incident map with damaged buildings, ports, and roads. They begin to prioritize needs. If we can fix some ports in Puget Sound, a navy vessel can bring supplies up from California. It might be faster than trying to clear enough roads to get trucks through. 

The fuel-line fires are threatening some fueling stations. 

10:30 am: Debris Task Force

US Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Protection Agency, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), US Coast Guard, Department of Transit, and Department of Ecology and others meet to discuss clearing roads and power lines.

11:00 am: Mass Care Conference Call with Local Jurisdictions

The Mass Care Taskforce needs to know more about which hospitals are functional, how many shelters should be set up, and to hear about what local jurisdictions need. Klallam tribe’s shelter is beginning to receive evacuees with pets. What should we do with them? The Red Cross is starting a blood drive and the Salvation Army is beginning to process donations.

 

11:30 pm: Lunch is served by building support staff.

12:00 pm: Draft requests for tomorrow due to Operations Section Chief

The State EOC operations staff have been tracking requests and make recommendations for tomorrow’s objectives. The various taskforces have recommendations too.

1:00 pm: EOC Update Briefing

The State EOC staff pause to get on the same page with one another. The state meteorologist gives a forecast. Incoming rain is good news for fire suppression but bad news for mass care shelters. They might need more tarps. The Public Information Officer finally gets an answer from the Department of Health about what to tell survivors about how to handle bodies. The Department of Ecology need hazmat teams to assess oil spills in the area. 

 

1:30 pm: Oil and Hazmat Coordination Group. US Coast Guard, the Environmental Protection Agency, State Department of Natural Resources, and State Department of Ecology meet to coordinate hazmat work.

2:00 pm: Congressional Conference Call

Disaster Manager and others call Washington, Oregon, Idaho, congressional delegations and other Federal partners to give an update of the situation. 

One Washington state congresswoman is concerned about the damage to agriculture. Even though it’s very early in the response, the EOC staff do their best to give some projections to the congresswoman so she can prepare to help her constituents during long-term recovery.

2:30 pm: Power Task Force Meeting review and update strategies for getting the power back on.

3:00 pm: Tactics Meeting

Section chiefs, the State EOC supervisor, representatives from FEMA, the National Guard, and Northern Command (active duty military), meet to discuss tomorrow’s priorities. It takes a long time; there are many task assignments. A list of firefighting resources and contact info is added to the Joint Incident Action Plan. A last minute addition: Pierce county jail needs water and extra patrol. 

 

4:00 pm: Principals Conference Call

The Emergency Management Division Director, Disaster Manager, and agency executives meet to discuss incident status, policy issues, and strategic messaging. 

4:30 pm: UCG Huddle:

Coordinating officers (liaisons) meet to make sure inter-agency coordination is going well. Some state staff are having trouble using the FEMA request form.

5:00 pm: Elected Officials Call

Emergency Management Division Director, Disaster Manager, and the policy group, give an incident update to the Governor’s Chief of Staff and other elected officials. 

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The Disaster Manager with others updates elected officials.

6:00 pm: Planning Meeting

Everyone takes a look at the Joint Incident Action Plan which is a document with all the objectives that the Tactics Meeting approved, assignment lists for tomorrow, contact information, maps, and tomorrow’s meeting schedule. When it’s approved, the document get’s uploaded to the State and FEMA’s online sharing environment where it will guide tomorrow’s work.

7:00 pm: Shift Change

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The SEOC goes through tons of coffee.

Thousands of local, state, and federal staff including many branches of the military have worked all day (and night) to save lives and property. And they’ll do it again tomorrow.


This is a dramatized account of a day in the State Emergency Operation’s Center during a pretend earthquake/tsunami disaster. This account is not real and should not be panicked about. 

The People of Cascadia Rising

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This is part of a series about the largest disaster exercise conducted in Washington State history called Cascadia Rising, 2016. See the other blogs here.

Here is only a very small sampling of the 20,000 participants spread across three states and federal and military headquarters. These people were found in the Washington State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and the surrounding campus. Mouse over the pictures to see more.

Cascadia Rising: Preamble

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EMScholar exercises

 

This is part of a series about the largest disaster exercise conducted in Washington State history called Cascadia Rising, 2016. See the other blogs here.


This blog series brought to you by the miraculous power of asking.

Unfortunately (according to some), I have been plagued since childhood by an innate desire to please people and bred by my mother’s perfect politeness to not get in the way. But through rigorous training administered by the loving type-A personalities in my life, I can now force myself to  knock softly on someone’s cubicle door–interrupting their day (gasp!)–and ask for something (double gasp!) with something approaching dignity and cheer.

That is how, via a terrifyingly casual handshake, I was introduced to Mr. Ed Taylor and Mr. Lit Dudley who are (more or less) in charge of Cascadia Rising 2016 Exercise. And how, after being brave, I was able to join the Controller Group which helps to administer the exercise, and how, after being even braver, I will be allowed to take photos and document the whole thing from start to finish.

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Well, perhaps not from the very, very start. Cascadia Rising is a regional-wide earthquake and tsunami simulation which Taylor et al have been planning for two years. It involves around 20,000 players from Washington, Oregon, and Idaho including participants from Federal, county, tribal, and city agencies, and stand-a-lone businesses like hospitals, Amazon, the Red Cross, Northwest Natural Gas, Amtrak, etc. People from Alaska, California, FEMA, University of Washington, and South America are coming to observe how the players run this 4-day disaster simulation.

The exercise is named after the Cascadia fault off the Northwest coast. You might remember it from this post. Cascadia subduction zone2.The Cascadia Rising planners created a scenario in which a 9.0 magnitude “full-rip” earthquake along the 700-mile Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) fault causes subsequent tsunamis and aftershock which impact the Washington and Oregon coastline. They will deliver the “news” of this earthquake to the players across the region via simulated USGS maps and video. Then, the participants will have to respond. Local damages based on scientific projections have been pre-planned and each local controller is in charge of telling the players about outages or damages. For example (and hypothetically, since “ground truth” is a secret to the players), a county near the coast might discover that their local cell phone tower has been damaged, meaning cell phones are out as a means of contacting damage assessors in the field.

I’ll be stationed in Washington State’s Emergency Operations Center (EOC) which will activate 107 state agency staff and 101 federal staff per shift. I’m looking forward to this station because the states are the conduit between local jurisdictions and federal partners. I will be at the hub of information processing, decision making, and direction giving. I can’t wait to see it all!

I hope you’ll join me for an inside look at an activated EOC this June.

 

The Top 10 Ways My Thesis is like Art

10 ways my thesis is art | EMScholar

 

I spent a large portion of this week trying to understand why seemingly reasonable people allow themselves to believe in unreasonable ideas like FEMA camps, Vaccine TruthersClimate Change Deniers and–most confounding of all–Flat Earthers (start at about 10:00 min). I’ve discovered many opinions ranging from Cultivation Theory to the failing educational system in America coupled with the high valuation of entertainment.

The apparent rise of anti-intellectualism in America is a complex problem requiring perhaps many different solutions, but the argument I found particularly compelling was from historian Richard Hofstadter who claims (in part) that many Americans value practicality over enlightenment. This has caused many high school graduates to choose vocational training over going to a 4-year college (or to enter the work field immediately). It has further caused many college students to avoid the humanities (who can get a job with an art-historian degree?) However, Hofstadter and I agree, that studying the humanities is a very important part of developing critical thinking skills, creativity, and tolerance for new ideas and people.

I myself carefully guided my college career toward the practical imbibing the arts only as a reward, a luxury I just couldn’t give up. Though I do believe that I was being responsible by making sure my degree was marketable, I do not agree that the humanities are worthless skills. Instead, those skills must be translated into resume speak. Just like your (probably unused) high school algebra added to your brain in a possibly unquantifiable way, books, music, art, philosophy, history add to your brain in unquantifiable yet critical ways. They make you a smarter, better, more interesting, person capable of distinguishing fact from fiction.

To prove it, I’ve demonstrated the usefulness of art with my above tongue-in-cheek list. Look how my art classes in college prepared me to write a science-degree thesis. Isn’t critical thinking, part-to-whole and whole-to-part flexibility, and empathy qualities that you want in an employee, boss, or government representative?

Usually, I try to ignore idiocy because I find it a frustrating waste of time to convince willfully ignorant people to believe me and the rest of science. But while responding to rapper B.o.b’s flat-earther comments, Neil Degrasse Tyson said something to change my mind on this occasion:

In a free society you can and should believe whatever you want… but if you have influence over others, as would successful rappers or even presidential candidates, then being wrong becomes being harmful to the health, the wealth, and the security of our citizens.

As the next generation of Emergency Manager tasked with protecting the health, wealth, and security of our citizens, I’m finding a careful balance of practicality and enlightenment more essential than ever. We just can’t afford to be wrong on issues of climate change, vaccines, or the shape of our worlds.

10 ways my thesis is art | EMScholar

PS: I read a lot of material that didn’t make it into this blog, but I think is worth your time. See it below:

Further Reading:

Millennial Tech and the Digital Divide

In August, I volunteered to be Media Director for a local non-profit. It’s been a lot of fun, and a lot of frustrating. I found myself–before I could even get started on typical Media Director stuff–educating the members on the basics of technology. I’ve never felt more like a Millennial than when I tried to explain the difference between a meme and a picture with words on it.

At the same time, I got distracted with learning how to hand spin wool and make my own lye. I’ve never felt more like a Millennial than when I texted my friend the instructions on how to make lye. “It’s easy!” I said. “Or we could just buy it…” she replied (#NotAMillennial).

Millennial Tech and the Digital Divide|EMScholar Blog
What the Digital Divide means for resiliency

I can’t decide if it’s a function of my personality, my generation, or my career, but I find myself straddling the “hyper-new tech” world and the “tech of the 18th c.” world. Survivalists have long taught electricity-independent homesteading skills while Hipsters have made traditional crafts cool again, thus the rise in classic skills. However, in order to be a functioning member of this society, you need at least a basic understanding of mobile phone, internet, and word processing skills. (Like more traditional forms of education, the more you learn, the better you get paid.) Besides that, technology continues to evolve and expand at exponential rates. It’s exciting to look ahead at what might be. Did you know they’re beginning to 3D print organs? Did you know they’re constructing the “Hyperloop” a super-fast pneumatic train track that can transport people, cars, and semis by air pressure that has basically no waste and no traffic jams? “Hmm…” I thought, “we’re adding new technology to the landscape, but the old tech isn’t disappearing. Except for 8-tracks. Vinyl stayed, but 8-tracks disappeared. Huh.”

This Thanksgiving, we went to visit my in laws and on the agenda–besides lots of yummy food and long, rowdy board games–was “show Mom how to use her new smart phone.” Her very first smart phone. She was dubious. Her son is an IT nerd, and she’s used to being lovingly lectured by him. I’m sure the whole idea seemed daunting. But when we got there, she’d already taught herself how to take pictures. “Hmm..” I thought, “maybe the Digital Divide is not as insurmountable as I thought”.

Later we went for a walk, and she expressed some concern over the pace of technology. “Don’t worry.” I assured her, “Technology is additive. Did you know people are making movies without CGI still? For the art of it. I mean, look at how good CGI is getting, and they still like non-CGI stuff*. Or look at radio now. It’s still around.”

But I was wrong. Technology is not additive. As Neil Postman wrote in the 90s, “Technology is ecological.”  John D. Cook quotes from Postman’s book: “In the year 1500, fifty years after the printing press was invented, we do not have old Europe plus the printing press. We had a different Europe.” This is why we still have vinyl but not 8-tracks. Vinyl changed the world by storing music. It’s still valuable to audiophiles because it’s the only uncompressed way of storing music (which sounds better) while the only value that digitally-storing 8-tracks had was storing MORE information on one device than vinyl which was quickly overcome by cassettes, CDs, and MP3 players. Thus, 8-tracks have worse sound quality than vinyl and worse data storage capacity than MP3 players so they’re gone.

If technology is ecological, than the Digital Divide is a big problem. As Margaret Rouse writes:

The digital divide typically exists between those in cities and those in rural areas; between the educated and the uneducated; between socioeconomic groups; and, globally, between the more and less industrially developed nations. Even among populations with some access to technology, the digital divide can be evident in the form of lower-performance computers, lower-speed wireless connections, lower-priced connections such as dial-up, and limited access to subscription-based content.

Here is a graphic of internet users worldwide as a percentage of the country’s population in 2012. (**Citation)

InternetPenetrationWorldMap.svg

Even in wealthy, heavily-connected America, the Digital Divide is a reality. Rouse writes, “A June 2013 U.S. White House broadband report, for example, showed that only 71% of American homes have adopted broadband, a figure lower than in other countries with comparable gross domestic product.”

If technology is ecological, than that means that places without good access to good tech are not evolving the same way that places with tech are. Who cares? Well…banks care, but–more importantly–social activists care. “Proponents for closing the digital divide include those who argue it would improve literacy, democracy, social mobility, economic equality and economic growth.” (Rouse). The Digital Divide makes being poor–already one of the most expensive things to be–harder. For instance, Kindle textbooks are cheaper than real ones. Finding jobs is easier with Monster.com rather than hitting the sidewalk. Getting help is easier with a mobile phone than running for it. Organizing revolutions is easier over Twitter than by word of mouth. Transportation is easier and cheaper with GPS (which could help your country make more money by delivering things faster).

So what does that mean for Emergencies Preparedness? Three things, at least:

  1. Helping to close the digital divide makes the world a better place in general.
  2. Making your country resilient (able to recover from disasters) means closing the Digital Divide.
  3. Both high-tech solutions (wiring money to a victim) and low-tech solutions (knowing how to purify your own water) will be needed for an Emergency.

Here’s a (partial?) list from Wikipedia of people who are helping close the digital divide. Maybe you’d like to help too.

Groups devoted to digital divide issues

 

*The non-CGI movie is just something I heard once. The internet doesn’t seem to know what I’m talking about, so it probably never happened.

** “InternetPenetrationWorldMap” by Jeff Ogden (W163)Own work, based on figures from the Wikipedia:List of countries by number of Internet users article in the English Wikipedia, which is in turn based on figures from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for 2010 (updated to use figures for 2012 on 28 June 2013).
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This vector image includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this:  BlankMap-World6.svg.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons

Further Reading

Disaster Boot Camp: Take Stock

Last time on EMscholar’s Disaster Boot Camp, we learned about hazards in our areas. Follow along as our heroes confront these fearsome predators. 

Welcome to Part 2 of my Disaster Boot Camp series. This series is based on the following principles:

  1. Every little bit helps.
  2. Everything I do has to be relatively quick, cheap, and pain free. Or else I probably won’t do it.
  3. Prepping should be part of everyday choices. It’s about making every choice work on two levels: practicality and resiliency.
  4. Prepping is a work in progress. We’re never “finished”.
  5. Since there will always be something you haven’t prepared for, prepping is about building mental flexibility and practical skills. And having the right tools on hand, of course.
  6. There’s no shame or guilt with prepping. Like a fitness program, these blogs are about starting wherever you are and finding a community to support you.
  7. There’s no fear with prepping. I, personally, don’t subscribe to the ultra-militant, us-against-the-world prepping mentality. Studies have shown that people tend to resort to pro-social, community-oriented behaviors in a disaster aftermath. I’m all about connecting people with each other because we’re stronger together. I also don’t believe in scaring people in order to get them to prepare. I believe in stating the facts unequivocally and describing solutions with a cautiously-optimistic outlook.

I also want to stress that this “Boot Camp” is not the “best” way of prepping. It’s not even that original. What it is, is my story. It’s resources, tips, trains of thought, and advice that I’ve found helpful. I intend for this blog to amplify the voices that are already teaching these things, not to supplant them. I would also be thrilled if you joined in below.

Ready? Let’s go!

series 2c

Goal 2: Take stock of present resourcesAKA: making a ton of lists.

1. Organize your thoughts with survival categories: Do1Thing, the Red Cross, and FEMA all approach this a little differently, but they add up to the following list of needs:

Evacuation Plan, Family Communication Plan, water, food, shelter, clothing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs include work gloves, hard hat, sturdy shoes, etc), signaling supplies (flares, mirror, whistle), fire making supplies, power back ups (generator, batteries, etc), First Aid,  personal prescriptions (ex: insulin, heart meds), pet supplies, tech readiness, document backups, duct tape and hand tools (for fixing house damage or turning off your water main), family/disaster specific supplies (ex: diapers, antiviral mask), off-the-grid navigation (maps, compass), and some off-the-grid entertainment.

How you approach each of these needs will depend on whether you’re making an evacuation backpack (“Bug-out-bag”), an office kit, a car kit, or a shelter-in-place kit (i.e. camping in your house). Ideally, we’ll be making all of these.

2. Take a tour of your house: I began with a quick tour of my house and car and noted things that could be appropriated to the cause and areas where I needed improvement. I found that I already had the beginnings of a car kit and stocked pantry, so I organized my list based on kit needs. Maybe you would find it easiest to organize your lists based on the survival categories or most urgent needs first. The key here is: you’ll be continually adding to this list as you think of things/learn more. You can see how many question marks are on my list which require more research on my part.

Screenshot of my list.
Screenshot of my list. Yellow are things I still need; white are things I have. I’ve grey-ed out the “Work Kit” because I don’t work away from home. It’s a low priority right now.

Download the full list here: EMscholar’s Emergency Kit Master List

Level Up: don’t forget to backup your list somewhere. It’d be nice if it was on the internet so you can add to it from anywhere as you think of things.

As I took stock, I realized I needed to make a few more lists, so I’m putting this all on a publically-viewable Trello board to keep myself organized. I like having something online because I can access it from anywhere as I think of things. Also, I like that you can move things around in Trello and attach pictures or links.

3. Note your skills: Take a moment to think about how much you know and what you still need to learn. For instance, I’m an ok gardener (room for improvement) and a fair sewer. Those skills could help me be more resilient long term (see my Long-term self-sufficiency list here). I’ve also taken a first aid class and a CPR class, though it might be time for a refresher.I can also drive stick shift. One summer, I forced my Sister-in-Law to teach me because I didn’t want to be stranded somewhere unable to drive the only vehicle available. Later that same year, I needed to drive stick or be stuck walking. On the other hand, I’m terrible with knots. It’s going on the “To Learn” list. Knots are useful for everything including sheltering, snaring food, tying a tourniquet, securing an animal…. I’d also like to learn more about edible plants in my area.

4. Make a 10-Minute To Do List: I’ve been inspired lately by this post from Backdoor Survival which lists easy 10 minute prepping projects by real preppers. Things like: rinse out soda bottles and fill with water, collect dryer lint in a sandwich bag for fire starting, buy an extra can every shopping day for your survival pantry, leave your bug-out-bag out somewhere and put stuff into it as you think of it, make an altoid tin fishing kit, practice lighting a fire, turning off your gas main, or cooking over a camping stove, and more.

Unfortunately, it’s likely that a few important preps will take longer than 10 minutes, but often getting started is half the battle. Use your easy list to build momentum for your harder list.

5. Keep researching: I’m sure I’ve left some gaps in my kit lists. That’s why it’s a work-in-progress. I’ll keep researching and you feel free to add things I’ve missed to the comment section below!

Whew! Good work everyone.

Disaster Boot Camp: Find Your Hazard

Today I end my hypocrisy.

I am embarrassed to tell you, friendly reader, exactly how UNprepared I am despite my extensive knowledge of and buy-in to disaster facts. I have no bug out bag, no emergency supplies for my cat, no evacuation plan (my husband and I share a car! How will we evacuate if we’re separated?), and no copies of important documents. I have a fire extinguisher only because it was here when we moved in (Landlords, take note!). But, I’ve decided to reject my feelings of shame and do something about it. Therefore, I’m introducing a new “Boot Camp” series. And I’d like you to partner with me! I’m taking a lesson from weight loss psychology. No shame, no guilt, only working together toward progress.

series 1

Notice, I said working toward progress not perfection. The thing about disasters is that they are uncertain. Take tsunami’s. We know that tsunami waves decrease exponentially in power the farther they get in land. And we’ve seen from the Japanese earthquake/tsunami that people who left immediately survived. Since no one can tell you exactly how far inland the tsunami will hit–both mathematically and practically–every step you take up or in increases your chances of survival. It’s the same for other disasters. Don’t be overwhelmed and disheartened by the awe-inspiring lengths Preppers go to survive an extinction-level event. No one can say exactly how big of an event you’re likely to experience, so every little bit of preparation adds up to better survival. You’re FAR better off BEGINNING to prepare than “finishing” (if you ever do finish, which is debatable). So if beginning is what’s important, let’s do that.

Ready? Goal One: Find out what hazards are in my area.

I’ve grown up in this area so I felt pretty confident in my assessment of the hazards. (Maybe you feel the same). Even when I lived briefly in Tornado Alley and the Wintery North East, I felt I understood what natural disasters I faced from their reputations. But, recently, I’ve discovered not one, but TWO different hazards in my home town that I didn’t even know existed. Awkward. Every Communications and Management expert will tell you that good decision making starts with knowing your initial conditions. So let’s do that. Let’s verify what out there.

1. Know the history. Let’s start with this simplified map which makes a list of likely disasters by region. I like this one because it includes tsunamis, pandemics, and economic downturns that the other maps don’t.

Now, let’s look at a more detailed map of disaster declarations over the last 50 years from FEMA (It’s really big and beautiful. It has to stay in a link because of formatting issues). Then, let’s look at this more recent map for the last 10 years.

FEMA_disaster declarations 2000_2010
Presidential Disaster Declarations, 2000-2010. Click for larger.

There’s lots to see here. Notice that FEMA breaks up the US into “Regions”. This will be helpful to you later on. Each state is broken up into county. The darker red the county is, the more disaster declarations it’s had. The red doesn’t tell you what kind of disaster, just how many (see the key at lower right). The pie charts, on the other hand, tell you what kind of disasters but not where. So…you’ll have to do a little inferring.  It looks like we all have flooding and winter storms in common. Last thing: in some pie charts you’ll notice “Other.” The “other” is different between the maps, so I highly recommend you look at the definition  waaaaay down at the bottom left. For instance, in the 50 yr map, volcanoes, dam breaks, and landslides are included in “other” This is where knowing what land features are around you would be helpful.

Level up: Here’s where you can search a list of disaster declarations by year, government, or type. You could search by county, for instance, to discover what’s common in your hometown.

2. Know your area. Let’s do a little geology/geography.

  • Ask your local authorities. A quick Google search of your town, county, or state’s “Emergency Management System” or “Disaster Response”. Some may continue to use “Civil Defense” name, though that is becoming increasingly rare. I highly encourage you to do this!
  • The NYT has a delightful map about the most and least risky spots to live. Complete with type of disaster.
  • Here’s a collection of USGS maps based on the various disasters (click for larger). I got them from the side panel of the Red Cross Map Library.
  • Map library based on state. Has maps of roads, rivers, elevation, etc. If you click on the river map in your state and scroll down, you’ll find a drought map, water flow rate map, and more. (Left: water features of Washington State. Right: drought map of Nevada)
Environmental hazards around DC. (screenshot)
Environmental hazards around DC. (screenshot)

Level Up: A lot of places have information on the intensity of a potential disaster. San Fransisco, for instance has numbers on how big of an earthquake to expect. Ask your local authorities if this information is available for your area.

3. Gather situational awareness. Situational awareness is knowing what’s happening around you right now. Do you know where to go for severe weather advisories or flood predictions?

  • Know what kind of warnings your area uses. Outdoor alarms? Push notifications (reverse 911)? Often you have to opt-in to local or regional push notifications. Your jurisdiction EM office should have information on how to do that.
  • Red Cross weather hazard library. A collection of constantly updated maps. Find rainfall/flood risk maps, wind gusts, status of tsunami and earthquake monitoring stations, air quality or heat maps, etc.
  • Map of seismic zones overlayed with nuclear reactor locations (courtesy Mike Meuser via CrisisHQ)
Is there a nuclear reactor in an earthquake zone near you?
Is there a nuclear reactor in an earthquake zone near you?
  • You can make your own “Lifeline” map here. (A lifeline map shows roads, sewers, electrical plants–anything a city needs to survive). I encourage you to play around with the map. There’s lots and lots of USGS info on it that you can overlay onto your specific area. It’s a really good source for local knowledge.
Custom made
Custom made “Lifeline” map around Chicago. (screenshot)
  • ESRI Severe Weather Public Information Map. Real time, crowd sourced severe weather reports. Puts NOAA warnings, and Twitter, Youtube, and Flikr info on a map. (Click “Fullscreen” over upper left map corner to get details like pic below).
Current crowd sourced info over Oklahoma. (screenshot)
Current crowd sourced info over Oklahoma courtesy ESRI. (screenshot)

4. Know what to do about it. 

The Red Cross has a list of (almost) all possible hazards. It’s good to start with a long list so we don’t miss something important. Notice the lovely alphabetical order and the lots and lots of further resources listed underneath.

Red Cross Disaster Library. Click to go.
Red Cross Disaster Library. Click to go.

I think that’s enough for today. Whew! Good work, everyone. Look at how much better prepared we all are!

If you found helpful resources, please do share them below.